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  Version: IPv4 Page Last Updated: Thu, 04-Apr-2013  


2G 2nd Generation
3G 3rd Generation
3GPP Third Generation Partnership Project
4WM Four Wave Mixing
8PSK 8 Phase Shift Keying(ed)
AAA Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting
AAC Advanced Audio Compression
AC Access Category
AC_BE Access Category – Best Effort
AC_BK Access Category – BacKground
AC_VI Access Category – VIdeo
AC_VO Access Category – VOice
AC3 Adaptive Transform Coder 3
ACAP Advanced Common Application Platform
ACE Advanced Component Exchange
ADSL Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line
AES Advanced Encryption Standard
AFF Adaptive Field/Frame
AGC Automatic Gain Control
AI Artificial Intelligence
AIFS Arbitration InterFrame Space
AIN Advanced Intelligent Network
AIT Application Information Table
AKA Authentication and Key Agreement
ALG Application Layer Gateway
AMOL Automated Measurement Of Lineup
A-MPDU Aggregated MAC (Media Access Control) Protocol Data Unit
ANSI American National Standards Institute
AoR Address of Record
AP Automatic Power
AP Audio Processor
API Application Programming Interface
APS Automatic Protection Switching
ARDP Advanced Return Path Modulator
ARPU Average Revenue per Unit (or User)
AS Application Server
ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange
ASI Asynchronous Serial Interface
ASP Advanced Streaming Profile
ASTB Advanced Set-Top Box
ATM Asynchronous Transfer Mode
ATSC Advanced Television Systems Committee
AV Audio/Video
AV Audiovisual
AVC Advanced Video Coding
B2B Business to Business
B2BUA Back-to-Back User Agent
B2C Business to Consumer
BB BroadBand
BER Bit Error Rate
BFT Broadcast File Transfer
BGCF Breakout Gateway Control Function
BIF Binary Interchange Format
BNC Broadcast Network Controller
BPF Band Pass Filter
BPL Broadband over Power Lines
B-PON Broadband Passive Optical Network
bps Bits Per Second
BSAM Basic Sequential Access Method
BSAM Broadband Services Access Multiplexer
BSCC Broadcast Stream Client Connector
BSS Basic Service Set
BTS Base Transceiver Station
BTSC Broadcast Television Systems Committee
BW Bandwidth
BYOI Bring Your Own Infrastructure
CA Conditional Access
CAN Cellular Access Network
CapEx Capital Expenditure
CAS Conditional Access System
CAT Conditional Access Table
CB Channel Bonding
CBR Constant Bit Rate
CC Closed Caption
CCA Circuit Card Assembly
CCI Copy Control Information
CCM Channel Change Message
CCNR Completion of Calls No Reply
CCS Control Channel System
CD Compact Disc
CDL Code DownLoad
CDMA Code Division Multiple Access
CDN Content Delivery Network
CDR Call Detail Record
CDT Carrier Definition Table
CE Consumer Electronics
CEA Consumer Electronics Association
CEPCA Consumer Electronics Powerline Communication Alliance
CFP Contention Free Periods
CIF Common Image Format
CIN Call Indentity Number
CLEC Common Local Echange Carrier
CM Cable Modem
CMS Call Management Server
CMTS Cable Modem Termination System
CNAM Calling NAMe
CNR Carrier-to-Noise Ratio
CNR Chronic Non-Responder
COFDM Coded Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing
CoS Class of Service
CPE Customer Premises Equipment
CPMS Copy Protection Management System
CPU Central Processing Unit
CRC Cyclic Redundancy Check
CRM Customer Relationship Management
CSA Common Scrambling Algorithim
CSCF Call State/Session Control(ler) Function
CSMA/CA Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance
CSMA/CD Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection
CSO Composite Second Order
CTB Composite Triple Beat
CTIA Cellular Telecommunications and Internet Association
CW Continuous Wave
CWDM Coarse Wavelength Division Multiplexing
D/E Decrypt/Extract
DAB Digital Audio Broadcast
DAC Descrambler Authorization Center
DAC Digital Access Controller
DAC Digital to Analog Converter
DANIS Digital Addressable Network Interface System
DASE Digital TV Application Software Environment
DAVIC Digital Audio Visual Council
DB Database
dB Decibel
dBc Decibel Referenced to the Carrier
dBFS Decibel Below Full Scale
dBm Decibel milliwatt
dBmV Decibel milliVolt
DBS Direct Broadcast Satellite
DC DigiCipher®
DC Direct Current
DC Directional Coupler
DC Dispersion Compensator
DCAS Downloadable Conditional Access System
DCF Distributed Coordination Function
DCII DigiCipher® II
DCP Digital Convergence Platform
DCT Digital Cable Terminal
DCT Discrete Cosine Transform
DEM DigiCipher Event Manager
DES Data Encryption Standard
DES Digital Encryption Standard
DFB Distributed Feedback
DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
DHEI DigiCable Headend Expansion Interface
DLNA Digital Living Network Alliance
DLS Down Load Server
DM Demodulator
DM Device Manager
DMB Digital Multimedia Broadcasting
DMIF Delivery Multimedia Integration Framework
DNS Domain Name System
DOA Dead on Arrival
DOCSIS® Data-Over-Cable Service Interface Specifications
DPI Digital Program Insertion
DRAM Dynamic Random Access Memory
DRC Dynamic Range Control
DRM Digital Rights Management
DS Downstream
DSCP Differentiated Service Code Point
DSE Digital Service Encoder
DSG DOCSIS® Set-top Gateway
DSL Digital Subscriber Line
DSLAM Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer
DSM-CC Digital Storage Medium Command and Control
DSP Digital Signal Processor
DSR Digital Satellite Receiver
DSSS Direct Sequencing Spread Spectrum
DS-UWB Direct Sequence Ultra-WideBand
DTH Direct-to-Home
DTMF Dual Tone Multi-frequency
DTV Digital Television
DVB Digital Video Broadcast
DVB-ASI DVB Asynchronous Serial Interface
DVB-H DVB Handheld
DVB-S DVB Satellite
DVB-T DVB Terrestial
DVC Digital Video Compressor
DVD Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc
DVD+RW Rewritable Digital Versatile Disc
DVNR Digital Vision Noise Reducer
DVR Digital Video Recorder
DVS Digital Video Standard
DVS Digital Video Subcommittee
DWDM Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing
E/I Encrypt/Insert
eBIF Enhanced Binary Interchange Format
ECC Encryption Control Center
ECM Entitlement Control Message
EDCA Enhanced Distributed Channel Access
EDFA Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier
EDGE Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution
eEAP Extensible Authentication Protocol
EEPROM Electronically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory
EIA Electronics Industry Association
EMC Encoder Monitor and Control
EMS Element Management System
eMTA Embedded Multimedia Terminal Adapter
ENDEC Encode/Decode
EoD Everything on Demand
EPG Electronic Program Guide
EPROM Electrically Readable Programmable Read Only Memory
EQAM Edge QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation)
ERS Encryption Renewal System
ES Exclusive Session
ESP Encapsulating Security Payload
ETS Event Trigger System
ETSI European Telecommunications Standards Institute
eTV Enhanced Television
EV-DO Evolution-Data Only
ExCCI Extended CCI
FAT File Allocation Table
FCC Federal Communications Commission
FDD Frequency Division Duplexed
FDDI Fiberoptic Digital Data Interface
FDIS Final Draft International Standard
FDP Face Description
FEC Forward Error Correction
FFT Fast Fourier Transform
FHSS Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum
FIFO First In First Out
FM Frequency Modulation
FPM FEC and Packet Multiplexer
FQDN Fully Qualified Domain Name
FTA Free to Air
FTP File Transfer Protocol
FTTC Fiber to the Curb
FTTH Fiber to the Home
FTTN Fiber to the Node
FTTP Fiber to the Premises
FTTU Fiber to the User
FTTx Fiber to the (endpoint)
FWM Four-Wave Mixing
GB Gigabyte
Gb/s Gigabits per Second
GB/s Gigabytes per Second
GbE Gigabit Ethernet
GBIC Gigabit Interface Converter
Gbps Gigabits per Second
GCR Group Configuration Request
GFL Group Flow Label
GHz Gigahertz
GigE Gigabit Ethernet
GOP Group of Pictures
GPI General Purpose Interface
G-PON Gigabit (Ethernet) Passive Optical Network
GPRS General Packet Radio Service
GPS Global Positioning System
GRX GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) Roaming eXchange
GSM Global System for Mobile communications
GSMA Global System for Mobile communications Association
GUI Graphical User Interface
GW Gateway
HAVi Home Audio Video Interoperability
HCCA Hybrid Coordination function controlled Channel Access
HCF Hybrid Coordination Function
HCM Hardware Control Message
HCT Headend Configuration Tool
HD High Definition
HDCP High Definition Copy Protection
HDD Hard Disk Drive
HDD High Definition Decoder
HDE High Definition Encoder
HDLC High Level Data Link Control
HDTV High Definition Television
HDVOD High-Definition Video on Demand
HE Headend
HF High Frequency
HFC Hybrid Fiber/Coax
HH HouseHold
HHR Half Horizontal Resolution
HLR Home Location Register
HMAC keyed-Hashing for Message Authentication Code
HMS Headend Management System
H-Net Home Network
HP Homes Passed
HPLMN Home Public Land Mobile Network
HPNA Home Phoneline Network Alliance
HRC Harmonically Related Carriers
HSCI High Speed Cable Interface
HSD High Speed Data
HSDPA High Speed Downlink Packet Access
HSE HD Service Encoder
HSI High-Speed Internet
HSS Home Subscriber Server
HSS/HLR High Speed Serial/Home Location Register
HSUPA High Speed Uplink Packet Access
HTML Hyper Text Markup Language
HTTP Hyper Text Transfer Protocol
HVAC High Voltage Alternating Current
HVC HD Video Compressor
HVS Human Vision System
Hz Hertz
I/O Input/Output
ICC Instant Channel Change
ICE Information and Content Exchange
ICE Inter Chip Encryption
i-CSCF Interrogating-Call State/Session Control(ler) Function
ID Identifier
IDC International Data Group Inc.
IDCT Inverse Discrete Cosine Transform
IDE Integrated Development Environment
IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
IEEE-SA Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Standards Association
IETF Internet Engineering Task Force
IF Intermediate Frequency
IGMP Internet Group Multicast Protocol
IM Instant Messaging
IMS IP Multimedia Subsystem
INP Input
IP Internet Protocol
IP-CAN Internet Protocol Cellular Access Network
IPG Interactive Program Guide
IPM Intelligent Policy Management
IPMP Intellectual Property Management and Protection i
IPPV Impulse Pay Per View
IPRM IP Rights Management System
IPSec Internet Protocol Security
IPTV Internet Protocol Television
IR Infra-Red
IRD Integrated Receiver/Decoder
IRT Integrated Receiver Transcoder
IRTDBG Integrated Receiver Transmitter DeBuG
IS International Standard
ISDB Integrated Service Digital Broadcast
ISDB-T Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting -Terrestrial
ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network
ISI Inter-Symbol Interference
ISO International Standards Organization
ISP Internet Service Provider
IT Information Technology
ITU International Telecommunications Union
iTV Interactive Television
IVRM Intelligent Video Resource Manager
IXP Internet Exchange Provider
JCP Java Community Process
JND Just Noticeable Difference
JPEG Joint Photographic Experts Group
JVT Joint Video Team
kB Kilobyte
kb/s Kilobits per Second
kbps Kilobits per Second
KDC Key Distribution Center
kHz Kilohertz
KLS Key List Server
km Kilometer
KP Kernel Processor
L/R Left/Right
L2TPv3 Layer-2 Tunneling Protocol Version 3
LAeq Long-term A-weighted loudness EQuivalent
LAN Local Area Network
LCD Liquid Crystal Display
LDAP Lightweight Directory Access Protocol
LED Light Emitting Diode
LEO Low Earth Orbit
LF Low Frequency
LH DWDM Long Haul Dense Wave Division Multiplex
LNB Low Noise Block Converter
LNP Local Number Portability
LP Long Play
LTC Longitudinal Time Code
LUA Last User Activity
MAC Media Access Control
MACD Moves, Adds, Changes, Deletes
MAN Metropolitan Area Network
MB Megabyte
Mb/s Megabits per Second
MB/s Megabytes per Second
MB-AFF Macro Block Adaptive Frame/Field
MBOA MultiBand OFDM Alliance
MB-OFDM Multiband Orthogonal Frequency Domain Modulation
Mbps Megabits per Second
MC Motion Compensation
M-CMTS Modular Cable Modem Termination System
MCPC Multiple Channel Per Carrier
MC-PC Media Center Personal Computers
MDU Multiple Dwelling Unit
MG Media Gateway
MGC Media Gateway Controller
MGCF Media Gateway Control(ler) Function
MGCP Media Gateway Control Protocol
MGW Media GateWay
MHP Multimedia Home Platform
MHz Megahertz
MIB Management Information Base
MIMO Multiple Input, Multiple Output
MIPS Million Instructions Per Second
ML@MP Main Level @ Main Profile
MLD Multicast Listener Discovery
MMD Multipoint Microwave Distribution
MMDS Multichannel Multipoint Distribution System
MMI Man Machine Interface
MMT Modulation Mode Table
MOCA Multimedia Over Coax Alliance
MP@HL Main Profile @ High Level
MP3 MPEG-1 Part 3, (Audio) Layer 3
MPAA Motion Picture Association of America
MPDU MAC (Media Access Control) Protocol Data Unit
MPE Multi Protocol Encapsulation
MPEG Moving Pictures Expert Group
MPEG-TS Moving Pictures Expert Group Transport Stream
MPS Modular Processing System
MPTS Multiple Program Transport Stream
MRFC Multimedia Resource Function Controller
MRFP Multimedia Resource Function Processor
MSC Mobile Switching Center
MSE Multi-Standard Encoder
MSN Microsoft Network
MSO Multiple System Operator
MSR Multi-Standard Receiver
MSRP Manufacturer’s Suggested Retail Price
MTA Multimedia Terminal Adapter
MV Motion Vector
MVNO Mobile Virtual Network Operator
MVP Multi-View Profile
NABTS North American Broadcast Teletext Standard
NANPA North American Numbering Plan Administration
NAPT Network Address and Protocol Translation
NAS Network Attached Storage
NASRAC National Authorization Service–Regional Access Controller
NASS Network Access Attachment Function(s)
NAT Network Address Translation
National Authorization Service
NC Network Controller
NCS Network Control System
NCTA National Cable Television Association
NG STB Next Generation Set-Top Box
NGN Next Generation Network
NGNA Next Generation Network Architecture
NIC Network Interface Card
NIM Network Interface Module
NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology
NIT Network Information Table
nm Nanometer
NMS Network Management System
NNI Network-Network Interface
NP Number Portability n
NPAC Number Portability Administration Center
NPR Noise Power Ratio
NPT Network Performance Tool
nPVR Network-based Personal Video Recorder
NRSS Network Renewable Security Standard
NRTC National Rural Telecommunications Cooperative
NRVC Noise Reduction Video Compression
NSP Network Service Provider
NTIA National Telecommunications and Information Administration
NTP Network Time Protocol
NTSC National Television System Committee
NVOD Near Video-On-Demand
OCAP OpenCable™ Application Platform
OC-x Optical Carrier (level)
ODRL Open Digital Rights Language
OFDM Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing
OLT Optical Line Terminal
OLT Optical Line Termination
OM Out of Band Modulator
OMA Open Mobile Alliance
OOB Out-of-Band
OpEx Operations Expenditure
OS Operating System
OSA Open Service Access
OSD On-Screen Display
OSS Operational Support System
OTN Optical Transition Node
OTN Optical Transport Network no
P2P Peer to Peer
P2P Point to Point
PACM Provisioning, Activation, Configuration & Management
PAL Phase Alternating Line
PAT Port Address Termination
PAT Program Association Table
PC PacketCable™
PCI Peripheral Component Interconnect
PCM Pulse Coded Modulation
PCMM PacketCable™ Multimedia
P-CSCF Proxy-Call State/Session Control(ler) Function
PDG Packet Data Gateway
PDU Protocol Data Unit
PES Packetized Elementary Stream
PID Program Identifier
PID Packet ID
PIM Protocol Independent Multicast
PIM-SM Protocol Independent Multicast – Sparse Mode
PIP Picture In Picture
PLMN Public Land Mobile Network
PMB Permanent Message Buffer
PMI Packet Multiplex Interface
PMK Pairwise Master Key
PML Packet Multiplex Link
PMP Point to MultiPoint
PMT Program Map Table
PN Program Number
PNA Phone Network Alliance
PON Passive Optical Network
POTS Plain Old Telephone System
PPE Programmable Processing Element
PPV Pay per View
PRCF Positioning Radio Coordination Function
PSIP Program and System Information Protocol
PSK PreShared Key
PSNR Peak Signal to Noise Ratio
PSTN Public Switched Telephone Network
PTK Pairwise Temporal Key
PVR Personal Video Recorder
QAM Quadrature Amplitude Modulation
QL Quantization Level
QL/BR Quantization Level/Bit Rate
QLP Quantization Level Processor
QoE Quality of Experience
QoS Quality of Service
QPSK Quadrature Phase Shift Keying
RACF Resource Access Control Facility
RACS Resource and Admission Control Function(s)
RADD Remote Addressable DANIS/DLS
RAID Redundant Array Of Inexpensive Disks
RAM Random Access Memory
RAN Radio Access Network
RAN Regional Area Network
RBOC Regional Bell Operating Company
RF Radio Frequency
RIM Rear-Chassis Input Module
RISC Reduced Instruction Set Computer
RKS Record Keeping Server
RM Resource Manager
RMX Remux
ROM Read Only Memory
ROM Rear-Chassis Output Module
RPD Return Path Demodulator
RSA Rivest-Shawir-Adleman (crypto algorithm)
RSM Remote Satellite Modulator
RSU Resynchronization Software Utility
RTP Real-time Transport Protocol
RTP Real Time Protocol
RTSP Real Time Streaming Protocol
RU Rack Unit
RX Receive or receiver
SAC Subscriber Authorization Center
SAP Secondary Audio Program
SAS Subscriber Authorization System
SB Switched Broadcast
SBC Switched Broadcast Client
SBCA Satellite Broadcasting Communication Association
SBS Stimulated Brilliouin Scattering
SBS Switched Broadcast Server
SCADA Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition
SCE Single Channel Encoder
SCPC Single Channel Per Carrier
SCS Service Capability Server
s-CSCF Serving-Call State/Session Control(ler) Function
SCTE Society of Cable Telecommunications Engineers
SD Standard Definition
SDB Switched Digital Broadast
SDI Serial Digital Interface
SDL Simple DirectMedia Layer
SDM SmartStream Device Manager
SDMI Secure Digital Music Initiative
SDP Session Description Protocol
SDPF Service Policy Decision Function
SDTV Standard Definition Television
SDV Switched Digital Video
SE Single Encoder
SEM SmartStream Encryptor Modulator
SEP Simulcast Edge Processor
SFP Small Form-factor Pluggable
SG Signaling Gateway
SGW Security GateWay
SHA-1 Secure Hash Algorithm 1
SID AMOL Source Identification – Automatic Measurement of Lineups
SIFS Shortest InterFrame Space
SIM Subscriber Identity Module
SIM Splice Information Message
SIP Session Initiation Protocol
SISO Single-Input Single-Output
SIT Splice Information Table
SIT System Integration & Test
SL Sync Layer
SMPTE Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers
SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol
SNR Signal-to-Noise Ratio
SoC Systems on a Chip
S-OFDM Scalable Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing
SONET Synchronous Optical Network
SPAN Services & Protocols for Advanced Networks
SPDF Synchronous Piggybacked Data Flow
SPDIF Sony Philips Digital Interface
SPIT SPAM over IP Telephony
SPM Self Phase Modulation
SPTS Single Program Transport Stream
SQL Structured Query Language
SR Satellite Receiver
SRAM Static Random Access Memory
SRM SmartStream Resource Manager
SRM System Resource Manager
SRS Stimulated Raman Scattering
SRTP Secure Real-time Transport Protocol
SRTP Sequenced Routing Table Protocol
SRUP Sequenced Routing Update Protocol
SS7 Signaling System number 7
SSD Solid State Disk
SSI Synchronous Serial Interface
SSL Secure Sockets Layer
SSM Source Specific Multicast
SSP Session Setup Protocol
STAMP Set-top Applications and Middleware Platform
STB Set-Top Box
STL Studio-Transmitter Link
STT System Time Table
STTD Space Time Transmit Diversity
STUN Simple Transversal of UDP (User Datagram Protocol)
TAM Tier Addressed Message
TB Terabyte
TC Transmission Convergence
TCP/IP Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
TDD Time Division Duplex
TDMA Time Division Multiple Access
TDT Time & Date Table
TFC Tunable Filter Chip
TFTP Trivial File Transfer Protocol
TIPHON Telecommunications & Internet Protocol Harmonization Over Networks
TISPAN Telecom & Internet Services & Protocols for Advanced Networks
TKIP Temporal Key Integrity Protocol
TLS Transport Layer Security
TMX Transport Multiplexer
TN Transit Node
TP Transport Processor
TPS Transport Parameter Signaling
TSID Transport Stream Identifier
TSP Television Service Processor
T-SPEC Traffic SPECification
TTLS Tunnel Transparent Layer Security
TTS Text To Speech
TURN Traversal Using Relay NAT (Network Address Translation)
TVCT Terrestrial Virtual Channel Table
TX Transmit or transmitter
TXOP Transmission Opportunity
U-ASPD Unscheduled - Automatic Power Save Delivery
UCS Uplink Control System
UDP User Datagram Protocol
UDP/IP User Datagram Protocol/Internet Protocol
UEQ Universal Edge QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation)
UGS Unsolicited Grant Service
UI User Interface
UKL Unit Key List
UMA Unlicensed Mobile Access
UMTS Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
UNI User Network Interface
UPA Usability Professionals’ Association
UPnP Universal Plug and Play
UPS Universal Power Supply
UPS Uplink Product Support
URI Uniform Resource Identifier
US Upstream
USB Universal Serial Bus
UWB Ultra Wideband
VBI Vertical Blanking Interval
VBR Variable Bit Rate
VC VideoCipher®
VC Virtual Channel
VC-1 Video Compression (Coding) 1 (Formerly VC-9--Soon to be known as SMPTE 421M)
VCM Virtual Channel Map
VCO Virtual Channel Override
VCR Video Cassette Recorder
VCT Virtual Channel Table
VDLM Virtual Data Line Monitor
VDSL Very High-bit-rate Digital Subscriber Line
VDT Video Dial Tone
VF Voice Frequency
VHF Very High Frequency
VHS Video Home System
VLR Visitor Location Register
VM Virtual Machine
VOD Video on Demand
VoIP Voice over Internet Protocol
VoWi-Fi Voice over Wi-Fi
VPN Virtual Private Network
VRN Video-Rich Navigation
VRNAV Video-Rich Navigation Audio/Visual
WCDMA Wireless Code Division Multiple Access
WDM Wave Division Multiplex
WiFi Wireless Fidelity
WiMax Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access
WLAN Wireless Local Area Network
WM Wave Multiplexing or Wave Mixing
WM9 Windows Media Player, version 9
WMAN Wireless Metropolitan Area Network
WME Wireless Multimedia Extension
WMM Wi-Fi MultiMedia
WMM-SA Wi-Fi MultiMedia Standards Association/Alliance
WPA Wireless (Wi-Fi) Protected Access
WPA-FSK Wireless (Wi-Fi) Protected Access with Pre-Shared Key
WWAN Wireless Wide area Network
xDSL Any variant of the Digital Subscriber Line technology
xHTML Extensible Hypertext Markup Language
XML Extensible Markup language
xoIP Anything Over Internet Protocol
XPM Cross-Phase Modulation
xPON X type of Passive Optical Network





Steve Warner Copyright Ⓒ 2007 - 2024. All trademarks acknowledged.